Legal and regulatory proceedings

Navigating legal or regulatory processes
Clearing the haze: How the legalization of recreational cannabis may affect your medical practice
A look at how the legalization of recreational marijuana may affect physicians’ practices, including whether it will eliminate patients’ requests for medical marijuana.
Team debriefs: Participate and minimize your medical-legal risks
Physicians should participate in quality assurance activities such as debriefs and should reduce their medical-legal risks by ensuring the debriefs are properly structured.
Cannabis legalization in Canada, one year later: Questions from members
A review of CMPA member enquiries following the legalization of cannabis for recreational use reveals that the new regulatory regime has generally not had a significant medical-legal impact for our members.
Will you be sorry for saying “I’m sorry”?
Certain provinces have legislation to prevent apologies for adverse events from being used in court proceedings.
Providing quality end-of-life care
End-of-life treatment decisions can be difficult for both physicians and patients, but many issues can be avoided by following the key concepts outlined.
Treating transgender individuals
Physicians who treat or who are asked to treat transgender individuals should be aware of the ethical and legal considerations in these circumstances to avoid allegations of discrimination.
Medical assistance in dying: Where do we stand now?
An overview of issues that CMPA members have enquired about in the two years since amendments to the Criminal Code of Canada made medical assistance in dying (MAID) legal.
Who is the most responsible physician? Check your knowledge
Clarity about who is responsible for the care of a patient at any given time improves patient safety and reduces medico-legal risk.
Understanding the role of coroners and medical examiners
Physicians should understand the role of coroners and medical examiners in Canada, and how and when to provide information to them.
Hit the brakes: Do you need to report your patient’s fitness to drive?
Explanation of physicians’ mandatory and discretionary obligations to report patients who have a medical condition that may make it dangerous for them to drive.
Treating physician reports, IME reports, and expert opinions: The way forward
Physicians who respond affirmatively to a request for a medical-legal report should prepare the report with care and in keeping with their College’s policies and guidelines.
Medical cannabis: Considerations for Canadian doctors
Polices introduced by the medical regulatory authorities (Colleges) reflect concerns expressed by some in the medical community about the use of marijuana for medical purposes and the challenging role given to physicians and other healthcare providers.
Completing medical certificates of death: Who’s responsible?
A discussion of physicians’ obligations when certifying a patient’s death.
Advance care planning: The key to person-centred end-of-life care
Physicians should consider encouraging patients to engage in advance care planning and appointing a substitute decision-maker early, before the patient no longer has the capacity to consent to end-of-life care.
If a colleague relies on your professional opinion, you may have a duty of care
When physicians offer a clinical comment or opinion that will be relied on to care for a patient, they may owe that patient a duty of care—even if they have never met the patient in person.
Can border agents search your smartphone?
CMPA gives advice to physicians travelling across international borders and having border agents search mobile electronic devices, such as smartphones, that may contain confidential patient information.
Understanding your rights—The rules of natural justice
The legal right to be treated fairly, known as natural justice, can have a huge impact in administrative proceedings against physicians (e.g. College or hospital proceedings).
Testifying: What it involves and how to do it effectively
A look at what’s involved when testifying as a treating physician, independent medical evaluator, or expert before a court, College, or administrative tribunal, and suggestions to do it confidently and effectively.
Healthcare directives: What you really need to know
Greater clarity in patient care can be achieved through healthcare directives, and when physicians understand their purpose and the rules governing them.
Doing medical administrative work? Do you have liability protection?
Physicians who do administrative work require liability protection for the professional medical tasks they perform and also for the non-clinical administrative tasks they perform in support of an organization.
When multiple defendants are involved in a legal action, things can get complicated
Typically, civil legal actions launched against physicians are initiated by a patient alleging negligence in care, but there are variations to this scenario that can result in more complex litigation involving multiple parties and claims.
Family disputes and the physician: Staying focused on safe care
Physicians can take reasonable steps to maintain the best interests of the patient in the midst of family disputes concerning the care of children or of elder patients.
Conscientious objection to medical assistance in dying: Protecting Charter rights
The Supreme Court of Canada’s decision declaring the prohibition on physician-assisted dying unconstitutional concerns some CMPA members who object for moral or religious reasons to helping patients end their lives.
"Dictated but not read": Unreviewed clinical record entries may pose risks
The practice of marking transcribed reports or entries “dictated but not read” gives rise to medical-legal risks and can create uncertainty for those relying on that information in providing patient care.
Transparency of physician information: What members need to know
Medical regulatory authorities are making more information about physicians available to the public. This article provides an overview of this trend, and explains how the CMPA helps members.
Are there risks to acting as a good Samaritan?
Physicians providing emergency care as good Samaritans often have questions about their legal and ethical obligations and the liability protection available to them.
Age of consent for sexual activity and duty to report
Changes to the Criminal Code have raised the age of consent for sexual activity. Physicians should be guided by legislation in each province and territory on their duty to report such activity to the appropriate authorities if there are reasonable grounds to believe the child is being abused.
The Canadian medical liability system: What makes it work?
The Canadian medical liability system has evolved to meet the unique needs of Canadians, but there remains an opportunity to enhance its fairness and effectiveness.
Physicians and research: Understanding the legal, ethical, and professional obligations
Physicians participating in clinical research studies should be aware of their relevant legal, ethical, and professional obligations.
Hospital complaints: Understanding the process and reducing anxiety
Physicians named in a hospital complaint can feel reassured that due process exists and will be followed, and that the CMPA is available to help.
Can a child provide consent?
Effective communication and awareness of legal requirements are key to obtaining consent for treatment of children.
Update on law for withdrawing treatment
While a Supreme Court of Canada decision clarifies that in Ontario, physicians must obtain consent before life support can be withheld or withdrawn, the effect of the decision in other jurisdictions is uncertain.
Physicians and nurse practitioners: Working collaboratively as independent health professionals
When working with nurse practitioners, physicians should understand the scope, responsibilities, and accountabilities of these independent healthcare providers, and should communicate clearly and in a timely manner.
Coping with a College complaint: Suggestions for reducing anxiety
Dealing with the stress of a College complaint is easier when a physician understands the complaint process and receives support, advice, and coping strategies from the CMPA.
Encryption just makes sense
Privacy legislation, regulatory policies and professional obligation require that CMPA members take reasonable measures to protect the privacy of their patients' personal health information. With the advent of electronic records, members should be cognizant that encryption can help secure personal health information and may be required by law.
The most responsible physician: A key link in the coordination of care
Clarity about who is responsible for the care of a patient at any given time improves patient safety and reduces medico-legal risk.
The changing practice of medicine: Employment contracts and medical liability
Physicians considering various arrangements for practising medicine, other than the privileges-based model, need to consider any medico-legal implications.
Understanding how Colleges handle complaints or allegations of professional misconduct
A complaint to a medical regulatory authority (College) initiates a process that warrants a physician's attention and timely response.
Changing physician-hospital relationships: Managing the medico-legal implications of change
Changes in the relationship between physicians and hospitals may have medico-legal implications that could lead to difficulties for physicians, institutions, and patients. Recommendations to address these implications are identified.
Clinical practice guidelines: What is their role in legal proceedings?
In legal proceedings where courts are determining if the care provided met the standard of care, authoritative clinical practice guidelines may be considered as one piece of evidence.
They can’t sue you from outside Canada, or can they?
When treating non-resident patients, Canadian physicians are advised to ensure they have adequate liability protection.
"Doc, I can't wear a seatbelt!"
Responding to patient requests for exemptions to wearing a seatbelt while driving.
Reimbursement of CMPA fees: A benefit to physicians and their patients
Subpoenas — What are a physician's responsibilities?
A subpoena or summons to witness requires the person named to attend the court, tribunal, commission, inquiry, inquest or military board proceeding or hearing named in the subpoena.
The medical record: A legal document — Can it be corrected?
Physicians should exercise care in modifying or correcting medical records. Suggestions on when and how to go about this are provided.
Physicians and the Firearms Act: a dilemma
Considerations in responding to patients' requests for support in acquiring firearms.
Class actions: On the increase?
Class actions are becoming more common in Canada.
Physicians and their patients' wills: issues to consider
Physicians may be asked to attest to the capacity of a patient if the patient's will is contested or at the time the will is being prepared.
Collaborative care: A medical liability perspective
Clinical care is increasingly provided by collaborative teams with the promise of better outcomes for patients. This document identifies potential medico-legal risks in collaborative care and proposes solutions to lessen those risks for patients and providers.
Estate planning — Prepare a will and make a plan
Certain practice management issues arise when a physician dies, and should be considered as part of estate planning.

DISCLAIMER: The information contained in this learning material is for general educational purposes only and is not intended to provide specific professional medical or legal advice, nor to constitute a "standard of care" for Canadian healthcare professionals. The use of CMPA learning resources is subject to the foregoing as well as the CMPA's Terms of Use.